The state capital is located in Chandigarh, a Union Territory and also the capital of the neighboring state of Haryana.The five rivers were Sutlej, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Jhelum; currently Sutlej, Ravi and Beas are part of the Indian Punjab.Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and influence from both west and east.Punjab faced invasions by the Achaemenids, Greeks, Scythians, Turks, and Afghans.Other major industries include the manufacturing of scientific instruments, agricultural goods, electrical goods, financial services, machine tools, textiles, sewing machines, sports goods, starch, tourism, fertilisers, bicycles, garments, and the processing of pine oil and sugar.
Another more accurate origin of "Punjab" is made up of Sanskrit words "punch" meaning five and "aap" meaning water ( river). Traditionally, in English, there used to be a definite article before the name, i.e. The Vedic Civilization spread along the length of the Sarasvati River to cover most of northern India including Punjab.
The entire Punjab region was annexed by the British East India Company from the Sikh Empire in 1849.
In 1947, the Punjab Province of British India was divided along religious lines into West Punjab and East Punjab.
The Punjab was home to the Gupta Empire, the empire of the Alchon Huns, the empire of Harsha, and the Mongol Empire.
Circa 1000, the Punjab was invaded by Muslims and was part of the Delhi Sultanate and Mughal Empire.